After the Civil Wars in America, the South was devastated economically. Southern states had to rebuild after suffering from massive destruction. They also had to deal with slavery and the aftermath of being a former slave state.
Additionally, the North became a strong industrial power, and they imposed new laws on the South. These changes led to tension between the two parts of the country.
Civil wars in America: Reconstruction
This period lasted for about 20 years, from 1865-1877. This was an important time in American history because it was when the newly freed slaves were given rights and freedom. During this time, there were many tensions between white Northerners and black Southerners.
White Northerners wanted to take over southern land and use their resources for themselves. Black people thought that they should have equal voting rights with whites. These conflicts resulted in a civil war called Reconstruction or Radical Republicanism.
Civil wars in America: The New South
This is another name for the South in which blacks have been treated equally. Blacks were able to vote now and could hold certain jobs like teachers and lawyers. However, these opportunities did not last long because Northern interests came into play again.
The government passed the Ku Klux Klan Act in 1871, which made lynching legal in some cases. In addition, Congress passed the Force Acts in 1870 and 1876, which meant that any person who helped a runaway slave would be arrested and punished by law.
These acts were used as ways to keep blacks from voting and organizing.
Civil wars in America: Industrialization
The South has always relied heavily upon agriculture. But during this time, the economy started to change. Cotton and tobacco plantations began giving way to factories.
More and more businesses moved north, taking workers with them. As a result, fewer agricultural jobs were available for less educated southerners. Educated men left the south and settled elsewhere mainly in urban areas.
The once-wealthy plantation owners lost employees and went bankrupt. At first, most planters left for the towns where they worked as laborer’s. However, these jobs paid much less than what they earned back home.
Many poor southerners decided to leave their homes and move north looking for work, setting off a mass migration.
African Americans suffered greatly during slavery and the Civil War. Slavery ended in 1863 but they didn’t get full citizenship right away. Most states wouldn’t give them full rights for decades!
Some states gave blacks limited rights instead. Although the Emancipation Proclamation said that all slaves are free, in practice only those in border states received their freedom in 1863. The rest got it later as time progressed.
The Civil War was fought between the North and the South, but both Do you agree with the cause of the war? Why or why not? Please let me know in the comments section below!
During the Civil War, women did not receive equal treatment. They did not have voting rights, nor could they own property. Some women even had to marry soldiers who were killed in battle to escape being sold into slavery.
In 1861, Lincoln signed the First Confiscation Act which authorized the president to confiscate all rebel properties. This included cotton, crops, livestock, real estate, and other assets. The Second Confiscation Act was passed in 1862.
It was a revised version of the original law. It stated that anyone fighting against the United States would lose their land. In 1866, Congress passed the Third Confiscation Act. This act returned all confiscated property to former owners.
The Fourth Confiscation Act was also passed in 1866. It took the property back from former Confederate citizens.
New York Draft Riots
On July 14, 1863, draft riots broke out in New York City over rumors of the city drafting young men. These rioters attacked Northern troops stationed in New York, burned down businesses and homes owned by Germans and Irish Catholics, and looted stores that refused to close shops.
The rioting spread across the country, reaching over 100 cities. Over 1,000 people died and thousands more were injured. The Union Army was sent in to quell the violence. Many of the protesters were arrested.
People were jailed without trial. Hundreds of draft resisters went to prison. By 1865, the riots finally stopped after President Lincoln issued an executive order ending forced conscription.
Civil wars in America have both historical significance, and contemporary relevance.
Many historians view the Civil War as a way to preserve the Union, while others believe it was just a fight over money and land.